Diabetes patient care

Most people with diabetes mellitus are not able to take care of themselves, so they need help from others. In the presence of somatic pathology or a complicated form of the disease, professional care is necessary, the main tasks of which are the systematic administration of medications, as well as the development of a competent diet, provision of moderate physical activity and control over the maintenance of personal hygiene. It is worth remembering that many patients with diabetes have changes in the brain, so it is important to strictly follow the prescriptions of the treating physician. This will help minimize possible complications of the disease.

The finer points of diabetes care

Diabetes mellitus can cause serious complications, including heart and kidney failures, visual impairment, high blood pressure, vascular disorders, and nerve fiber damage (diabetic neuropathy). In these situations it is often necessary to amputate the limb. However, it is possible to significantly reduce the risk of complications if certain standards are observed. These include:

  • Measuring blood sugar levels,
  • maintaining a balanced diet,
  • Moderate physical activity (e.g., physical therapy or daily walks),
  • Personal hygiene measures,
  • specialized patient care.

Often the most common complications of diabetes mellitus are compensated just by quality care. Mostly the following disorders can be managed:

1. Nerve damage

This syndrome is also called diabetic neuropathy. This complication manifests itself as numbness of the limbs, a feeling of pain and tingling, impaired sweating, or problems with urination. All this causes an increase in sugar levels, as well as damage to the structures of nerve fibers. Quality care includes controlling blood sugar levels, taking necessary medications on time, following a diet prescribed by a doctor, and minimal physical activity.

2. Increased risk of developing infections

People with diabetes often endure an overgrowth of bacterial and fungal infections. These mainly affect the skin and urinary tract. Caregivers help patients reduce the risk of infection. For this, personal hygiene is strictly controlled to keep the skin clean and dry. Caregivers regularly bathe patients. If an infection is suspected in the patient's body, nurses promptly inform the attending physician.

3. Visual impairment

People with diabetes most often suffer from glaucoma or cataracts. Such visual impairments often develop in them at a fairly early age. This happens because the eye's blood vessels, as well as the lens, retina, and optic nerve, are damaged due to high blood sugar levels. Patients require systematic medical examinations. This is necessary for the timely appointment of treatment, if necessary.

4. Problems with limbs (in particular, legs)

Feet problems can affect almost anyone, but people with diabetes are more prone to blisters and calluses. These patients often have cracked skin and are prone to complex infections. This is due to the fact that due to damage to nerve tissues due to diabetes, the sensitivity of receptors in the limbs decreases. Experienced specialists teach patients with this disease to pay attention to well-being, in particular, to sensations in the legs, as well as to follow important care rules - to keep the feet dry and clean. Such simple recommendations help reduce the risk of developing infections.

5. Kidney or heart dysfunction

Diabetes increases the risk of developing heart or kidney problems. However, if you follow a healthy lifestyle and regularly monitor the work of the above organs, you can avoid complications. Specialists caring for patients with diabetes help to follow the doctor's recommendations and take medications correctly. Staff monitors the provision of moderate physical activity and ensures regular measurement of blood sugar levels. Also, specialists surround the wards with attention and care, often take on not only care, but also the performance of household duties. This helps the patient to maintain energy, which is important for the successful fight against the disease.

Specialized care for a patient with diabetes mellitus

  • 1. Doctor's consultations and preparation of a treatment plan.The endocrinologist and nutritionist must inform the caring staff and the patient himself about the disease, how to treat it. The main prescriptions of the doctor include adherence to a healthy diet, moderate physical activity, weight control (it should not exceed the norm), regular measurement of blood sugar levels. All this contributes to maintaining the quality of life of the patient.
  • 2. Smoking ban. Patients who smoke should consult with a specialist about ways to get rid of this habit. Due to constant smoking, the risk of complications of the disease increases significantly, including stroke, myocardial infarction, impaired functioning of the kidneys and the nervous system. In addition, smokers with diabetes mellitus are at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, leading to death - mortality among such patients is 3 times higher than in non-smoking diabetics.
  • 3. Control of cholesterol levels and blood pressure. High blood pressure causes damage to blood vessels, and excess cholesterol reduces the quality of life of any person. When it comes to diabetics, the chances of developing atherosclerosis of the vessels increase. Together, these factors raise the risk of fairly serious complications, such as stroke or myocardial infarction. To maintain normal cholesterol and sugar levels, you must strictly adhere to the prescribed diet, eat only healthy foods, provide yourself with daily physical activity and take medication prescribed by your doctor.
  • 4. Planned examinations by a specialist. It is important to have an accurate schedule of medical examinations throughout the year. It is necessary to visit not only an endocrinologist, but also an ophthalmologist to check your vision. The specialist will also check the organs of vision for the presence of glaucoma, cataracts and damage to the retina. Periodic observation of doctors allows you to timely identify possible complications at an early stage and prescribe appropriate treatment.
  • 5. Vaccination. Increased blood sugar can weaken the immune system. Therefore, for patients with diabetes, routine immunization is much more important than for ordinary people. The set of measures includes:
    • flu shots. Flu shots should be given every year. This will help maintain health during the season of exacerbation of this disease. Protecting yourself from the flu will help prevent the complications of diabetes that the disease causes;
    • pneumonia shots. Basically, this vaccine is given once. In case of complications of diabetes mellitus, as well as for patients over 65 years of age, a second vaccination may be necessary every 5 years;
    • vaccination against hepatitis B. If the patient has not previously been vaccinated against this disease, it is worth getting it. This is especially true for people over 19 years of age and up to 59 years of age with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Patients who are 60 years of age or older, have diabetes and have not been vaccinated should consult a doctor;
    • other vaccines. The doctor may recommend other vaccines based on the patient's medical condition.
  • 6. Oral hygiene. Diabetes increases the risk of gum disease. For prevention, it is important to brush your teeth up to 2 times a day, use hygienic floss at least once a day (preferably after meals). It is also important to visit the dentist every six months. In case of detection of bleeding gums, redness, swelling, you should immediately contact a specialist.
  • 7. Take an aspirin every day. This drug helps to reduce blood clotting. Aspirin should be taken every day - this way it is possible to minimize the risk of stroke and heart attack.
  • 8. Alcohol control. Patients with diabetes need to drink alcohol in moderation. Depending on the amount of alcohol consumed, drinking alcohol leads to a sharp drop in blood sugar levels. The patient is allowed to occasionally drink alcohol, but only in limited quantities and only with food. It is important to remember that alcohol is an extremely high-calorie product, so dosages must be calculated based on the daily calorie restriction of the prescribed diet.
  • 9. Stress control. Prolonged anxiety can disrupt hormone production, which reduces insulin levels or tissue sensitivity to it. To prevent this situation, the patient needs to get enough sleep. It is also recommended to take a course of relaxation therapy. This will reduce the impact of stress.
  • 10. Nutrition control. To reduce weight and insulin levels, it is worth eating a balanced diet. Often there are cases when to successfully fight diabetes and maintain the desired level of sugar, it is enough to lose up to 10% of the weight.

Recommended dietary interventions for diabetics:

  • Consult a dietitian - a doctor will help you create the appropriate diet for diabetes, based on the habits and preferences of the patient.
  • Meals should be prepared with healthy ingredients and recommended products.
  • Consult your doctor about the recommended dose of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates for the patient.
  • Include dietary fiber in your diet that can reduce blood glucose spikes.
  • Control glucose levels before and after meals.

Medications

The good news, however, is that diabetes is a highly manageable condition. While there is no cure for diabetes, there are various treatment options available that can help regulate blood sugar levels and prevent or delay complications.

Diabetes treatment typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medications, and, in some cases, insulin therapy.

There are several classes of medications that can help manage blood sugar levels in individuals with diabetes. These include:

Oral Medications

Oral medications are typically prescribed for individuals with type 2 diabetes, as they work by increasing insulin sensitivity or promoting insulin secretion. Examples of oral medications include metformin, sulfonylureas, and DPP-4 inhibitors.

Rybelsus (semaglutide) tablets, available in 3 mg, 7 mg or 14 mg doses, are primarily used to improve blood sugar (glucose) levels in adults with type 2 diabetes. This medication is intended to be used alongside diet and exercise.

Injectables

Injectable medications, such as GLP-1 agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors, can help lower blood glucose levels and also have cardiovascular and renal benefits.

Insulin Therapy

Insulin therapy is used to manage blood sugar levels in individuals with type 1 diabetes and some cases of type 2 diabetes. There are several types of insulin available, including rapid-acting, short-acting, intermediate-acting, and long-acting insulin. Insulin therapy requires careful monitoring of blood glucose levels and dosing adjustments as needed.

Diabetes is a chronic condition that requires ongoing care and management. While there is no cure for diabetes, there are various treatment options available that can help regulate blood sugar levels and prevent or delay complications. By making lifestyle changes, taking medications, and monitoring blood glucose levels, individuals with diabetes can lead healthy, fulfilling lives.